## Data Visualization

Get the right information, with visual impact, to the people who need it

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Scale a density curve to match a histogram

This article discusses how to scale a probability density curve so that it fits appropriately on a histogram, as shown in the graph to the right. By definition, a probability density curve is scaled so that the area under the curve equals 1. However, a histogram might show counts or

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A bootstrap confidence interval for an R-square statistic

A previous article discusses a formula for a confidence interval for R-square in a linear regression model (Olkin and Finn (1995) "Correlations redux", Psychological Bulletin) The formula is useful for large data sets, but should be used with caution for small samples. At the end of the previous article, I

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The distribution of the R-square statistic

A SAS analyst ran a linear regression model and obtained an R-square statistic for the fit. However, he wanted a confidence interval, so he posted a question to a discussion forum asking how to obtain a confidence interval for the R-square parameter. Someone suggested a formula from a textbook (Cohen,

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Visualize a multivariate regression model when using spline effects

A SAS analyst read my previous article about visualizing the predicted values for a regression model that uses spline effects. Because the original explanatory variable does not appear in the model, the analyst had several questions: How do you score the model on new data? The previous example has only

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Identifying time delays in batch manufacturing for accurate anomaly detection

Batch manufacturing involves producing goods in batches rather than in a continuous stream. This approach is common in industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and materials processing, where precise control over the production process is essential to ensure product quality and consistency. One critical aspect of batch manufacturing is the need to manage and understand inherent time delays that occur at various stages of the process.

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Create filled density plots in SAS

A SAS programmer wanted to visualize density estimate for some univariate data. The data had several groups, so he wanted to create a panel of density estimate, which you can easily do by using PROC SGPANEL in SAS. However, the programmer's boss wanted to see filled density estimates, such as

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Visualize patterns of missing values

Years ago, I wrote an article that showed how to visualize patterns of missing data. During a recent data visualization talk, I discussed the program, which used a small number of SAS IML statements. An audience member asked whether it is possible to construct the same visualization by using only

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Add a second axis to a SAS graph

Recently, I saw a scatter plot that displayed the ticks, values, and labels for a vertical axis on the right side of a graph. In the SGPLOT procedure in SAS, you can use the Y2AXIS option to move an axis on the right side of a graph. Similarly, you can

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Using colors to visualize groups in a bar chart in SAS

I sometimes see analysts overuse colors in statistical graphics. My rule of thumb is that you do not need to use color to represent a variable that is already represented in a graph. For example, it is redundant to use a continuous color ramp to represent the lengths of bars

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Top 10 posts from The DO Loop in 2023

In 2023, I wrote 90 articles for The DO Loop blog. My most popular articles were about SAS programming, data visualization, and statistics. In addition, several "general interest" articles were popular, including my article for Pi Day and an article about AI chatbots. If you missed any of these articles,

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알아 두면 유용한 SAS Viya 4의 편리한 기능 – Logging & Monitoring

클라우드 기반 AI 분석 플랫폼인 SAS Viya 4에는 여러 가지 유용한 기능이 있습니다. 이번 글에서는 SAS Viya 4를 위한 Logging & Monitoring 기능에 대해 소개 드리겠습니다.   1. Logging & Monitoring 이란 무엇인가? Logging과 Monitoring은 해석 그대로, 해당 서비스에 대한 로그 기록과 상태를 시각적으로 표시해주는 것을 의미합니다. 기존 SAS Viya

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データ分析プロセス全体を管理～自己組織的に育てるナレッジのカタログ化とは

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10 tips for creating effective statistical graphics

These are a few of my favorite things.           —Maria in The Sound of Music For my annual Christmas-themed post, I decided to forgo fractal Christmas trees and animated greeting cards and instead present a compilation of some of my favorite data visualization tips for advanced SAS users. Hopefully, this

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Text analytics: A recipe for food safety success

As millions of people party and eat their way through the season of overindulgence, they should feel confident that indigestion and a few extra pounds should be the only downsides to their feasting. Thanks to countless hours of work behind the scenes by food inspectors and public health officials, diners

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Data visualization tip: Plot rates, not counts

Plot rates, not counts. This maxim is often stated by data visualization experts, but often ignored by practitioners. You might also hear the related phrases "plot proportions" or "plot percentages," which mean the same thing but expresses the idea alliteratively. An example in a previous article about avoiding alphabetical ordering

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Tip: Avoid alphabetical order for a categorical axis in a graph

Howard Wainer, who used to write the "Visual Revelations" column in Chance magazine, often reminded his readers that "we are almost never interested in seeing Alabama first" (2005, Graphic Discovery, p. 72). His comment is a reminder that when we plot data for a large number of categories (states, countries,

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Avoid domain errors by using Taylor series

The other day I was trying to numerically integrate the function f(x) = sin(x)/x on the domain [0,∞). The graph of this function is shown to the right. In SAS, you can use the QUAD subroutine in SAS IML software to perform numerical integration. Some numerical integrators have difficulty computing

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