You've probably heard about the "80-20 Rule," which describes many natural and manmade phenomena. This rule is sometimes called the "Pareto Principle" because it was discovered by Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923) who used it to describe the unequal distribution of wealth. Specifically, in his study, 80% of the wealth was held

## Tag: **Statistical Graphics**

Simulation studies are used for many purposes, one of which is to examine how distributional assumptions affect the coverage probability of a confidence interval. This article describes the "zipper plot," which enables you to compare the coverage probability of a confidence interval when the data do or do not follow

Did you know that SAS can combine or "merge" a symbol and a line pattern into a single legend item, as shown below? This kind of legend is useful when you are overlaying a group of curves onto a scatter plot. It enables the reader to quickly associate values of

This article shows how to construct a "stacked band plot" in SAS, as shown to the right. (Click to enlarge.) You are probably familiar with a stacked bar chart in which the cumulative amount of some quantity is displayed by stacking the contributions of several groups. A canonical example is

Money magazine (Jan/Feb 2018) contains an article about how much it costs to give birth in the US. The costs, which are based on insurance data, include prenatal care and hospital delivery but exclude infant care. The data are compiled for each state (including Washington, DC) and by type of

Last week I wrote about the 10 most popular articles from The DO Loop in 2017. My most popular articles tend to be about elementary statistics or SAS programming tips. Less popular are the articles about advanced statistical and programming techniques. However, these technical articles fill an important niche. Not

A SAS programmer asked how to label multiple regression lines that are overlaid on a single scatter plot. Specifically, he asked to label the curves that are produced by using the REG statement with the GROUP= option in PROC SGPLOT. He wanted the labels to be the slope and intercept

I previously showed an easy way to visualize a regression model that has several continuous explanatory variables: use the SLICEFIT option in the EFFECTPLOT statement in SAS to create a sliced fit plot. The EFFECTPLOT statement is directly supported by the syntax of the GENMOD, LOGISTIC, and ORTHOREG procedures in

Missing values present challenges for the statistical analyst and data scientist. Many modeling techniques (such as regression) exclude observations that contain missing values, which can reduce the sample size and reduce the power of a statistical analysis. Before you try to deal with missing values in an analysis (for example,

This article demonstrates a SAS programming technique that I call Kuhfeld's template modification technique. The technique enables you to dynamically modify an ODS template and immediately call the modified template to produce a new graph or table. By following the five steps in this article, you can implement the technique

In a previous article, I discussed the lines plot for multiple comparisons of means. Another graph that is frequently used for multiple comparisons is the diffogram, which indicates whether the pairwise differences between means of groups are statistically significant. This article discusses how to interpret a diffogram. Two related plots

In a previous article, I discussed the lines plot for multiple comparisons of means. Another graph that is frequently used for multiple comparisons is the diffogram, which indicates whether the pairwise differences between means of groups are statistically significant. This article discusses how to interpret a diffogram. Two related plots

Last week Warren Kuhfeld wrote about a graph called the "lines plot" that is produced by SAS/STAT procedures in SAS 9.4M5. (Notice that the "lines plot" has an 's'; it is not a line plot!) The lines plot is produced as part of an analysis that performs multiple comparisons of

If you perform a weighted statistical analysis, it can be useful to produce a statistical graph that also incorporates the weights. This article shows how to construct and interpret a weighted histogram in SAS. How to construct a weighted histogram Before constructing a weighted histogram, let's review the construction of

Toe bone connected to the foot bone, Foot bone connected to the leg bone, Leg bone connected to the knee bone,... — American Spiritual, "Dem Bones" Last week I read an interesting article on Robert Kosara's data visualization blog. Kosara connected the geographic centers of the US zip codes in

An important problem in machine learning is the "classification problem." In this supervised learning problem, you build a statistical model that predicts a set of categorical outcomes (responses) based on a set of input features (explanatory variables). You do this by training the model on data for which the outcomes

By default, when you use the SERIES statement in PROC SGPLOT to create a line plot, the observations are connected (in order) by straight line segments. However, SAS 9.4m1 introduced the SMOOTHCONNECT option which, as the name implies, uses a smooth curve to connect the observations. In Sanjay Matange's blog,

If a financial analyst says it is "likely" that a company will be profitable next year, what probability would you ascribe to that statement? If an intelligence report claims that there is "little chance" of a terrorist attack against an embassy, should the ambassador interpret this as a one-in-a-hundred chance,

Most SAS regression procedures support a CLASS statement which internally generates dummy variables for categorical variables. I have previously described what dummy variables are and how are they used. I have also written about how to create design matrices that contain dummy variables in SAS, and in particular how to

There are several ways to visualize data in a two-way ANOVA model. Most visualizations show a statistical summary of the response variable for each category. However, for small data sets, it can be useful to overlay the raw data. This article shows a simple trick that you can use to

A reader commented on last week's article about constructing symmetric intervals. He wanted to know if I created it in SAS. Yes, the graph, which illustrates the so-called 68-95-99.7 rule for the normal distribution, was created by using several statements in the SGPLOT procedure in Base SAS The SERIES statement

Suppose you create a scatter plot in SAS with PROC SGPLOT. What color does PROC SGPLOT use for the markers? If you specify the GROUP= option so that markers are colored by a grouping variable, what colors are used to represent the various groups? The following scatter plot shows the

If you are a SAS programmer and use the GROUP= option in PROC SGPLOT, you might have encountered a thorny issue: if you use a WHERE clause to omit certain observations, then the marker colors for groups might change from one plot to another. This happens because the marker colors

“La Quinta” is Spanish for “next to Denny’s.” -- Mitch Hedberg, comedian Mitch Hedberg's joke resonates with travelers who drive on the US interstate system because many highway exits feature both a La Quinta Inn™ and a Denny's® restaurant within a short distance of each other. But does a

Do you want to create customized SAS graphs by using PROC SGPLOT and the other ODS graphics procedures? An essential skill that you need to learn is how to merge, join, append, and concatenate SAS data sets that come from different sources. The SAS statistical graphics procedures (SG procedures) enable

A SAS customer asked how to use background colors and a dashed line to emphasize the forecast region for a graph that shows a time series model. The task requires the following steps: Use the ATTRPRIORITY=NONE option on the ODS GRAPHICS statement to make sure that the current ODS style

Who was the oldest person elected president of the United States? How about the youngest? Who was the oldest when he left office? Let's look at some data. Wikipedia has a page that presents a table of the presidents of the US by age. It lists the dates for which

This article uses graphical techniques to visualize one of my favorite geometric objects: the surface of a three-dimensional torus. Along the way, this article demonstrates techniques that are useful for visualizing more mundane 3-D point clouds that arise in statistical data analysis. Define points on a torus A torus is

Rotation matrices are used in computer graphics and in statistical analyses. A rotation matrix is especially easy to implement in a matrix language such as the SAS Interactive Matrix Language (SAS/IML). This article shows how to implement three-dimensional rotation matrices and use them to rotate a 3-D point cloud. Define

I've written several articles about scatter plot smoothers: nonparametric regression curves that reveal small- and large-scale features of a response variable as a function of an explanatory variable. However, there is another kind of "smoothness" that you might care about, and that is the apparent smoothness of curves and markers