2
Rank, order, and sorting

A SAS programmer was trying to implement an algorithm in PROC IML in SAS based on some R code he had seen on the internet. The R code used the rank() and order() functions. This led the programmer to ask, "What is the different between the rank and the order?

2
The distribution of p-values under the null hypothesis

A SAS statistical programmer recently asked a theoretical question about statistics. "I've read that 'p-values are uniformly distributed under the null hypothesis,'" he began, "but what does that mean in practice? Is it important?" I think data simulation is a great way to discuss the conditions for which p-values are

1
Dice and the correctness of a simulation

At a recent conference in Las Vegas, a presenter simulated the sum of two dice and used it to simulate the game of craps. I write a lot of simulations, so I'd like to discuss two related topics: How to simulate the sum of two dice in SAS. This is

5
Visualize patterns of missing values

Years ago, I wrote an article that showed how to visualize patterns of missing data. During a recent data visualization talk, I discussed the program, which used a small number of SAS IML statements. An audience member asked whether it is possible to construct the same visualization by using only

0
Estimate a proportion and a confidence interval in SAS

A SAS programmer wanted to estimate a proportion and a confidence interval (CI), but didn't know which SAS procedure to call. He knows a formula for the CI from an elementary statistics textbook. If x is the observed count of events in a random sample of size n, then the

0
Bimodal and unimodal beta distributions

In a recent article, I graphed the PDF of a few Beta distributions that had a variety of skewness and kurtosis values. I thought that I had chosen the parameter values to represent a wide variety of Beta shapes. However, I was surprised to see that the distributions were all