# The DO Loop

Statistical programming in SAS with an emphasis on SAS/IML programsA SAS programmer wanted to compute the distribution of X-Y, where X and Y are two beta-distributed random variables. Pham-Gia and Turkkan (1993) derive a formula for the PDF of this distribution. Unfortunately, the PDF involves evaluating a two-dimensional generalized hypergeometric function, which is not available in all programming languages.

In applied mathematics, there is a large collection of "special functions." These function appera in certain applications, often as the solution to a differential equation, but also in the definition of probability distributions. For example, I have written about Bessel functions, the complete and incomplete gamma function, and the complete

The metalog family of distributions (Keelin, Decision Analysis, 2016) is a flexible family that can model a wide range of continuous univariate data distributions when the data-generating mechanism is unknown. This article provides an overview of the metalog distributions. A subsequent article shows how to download and use a library

A SAS programmer asked for help to simulate data from a distribution that has certain properties. The distribution must be supported on the interval [a, b] and have a specified mean, μ, where a < μ < b. It turns out that there are infinitely many distributions that satisfy these

You can use a Markov transition matrix to model the transition of an entity between a set of discrete states. A transition matrix is also called a stochastic matrix. A previous article describes how to use transition matrices for stochastic modeling. You can estimate a Markov transition matrix by using

SAS programmers love to make special graphs for Valentine's Day. In fact, there is a long history of heart-shaped graphs and love-inspired programs written in SAS! Last year, I added to the collection by showing how a ball bounces on a heart-shaped billiards table. This year, I create a similar