# The DO Loop

Statistical programming in SAS with an emphasis on SAS/IML programsI read a journal article in which a researcher used a formula for the probability density function (PDF) of the sample correlation coefficient. The formula was rather complicated, and presented with no citation, so I was curious to learn more. I found the distribution for the correlation coefficient in the

Some hearts are famous. For example, there is the "Heart of Gold" (Neil Young), the "Heart of Glass" (Blondie), and the Heart of Darkness (Joseph Conrad). But have you heard of the "Heart of Ellipses"? No? Well, in 2023, Ted Conway published an amusingly titled article, "Total Ellipse of the

This article looks at a geometric method for estimating the center of a multivariate point cloud. The method is known as convex-hull peeling. In two-dimensions, you can perform convex-hull peeling in SAS 9 by using the CVEXHULL function in SAS IML software. For higher dimensions, you can use the CONVEXHULL

A SAS programmer wanted to find the name of the variable for each row that contains the largest value. This task is useful for wide data sets in which each observation has several variables that are measured on the same scale. For example, each observation in the data might represent

A colleague remarked that my recent article about using Jacobi's iterative method for solving a linear system of equations "seems like magic." Specifically, it seems like magic that you can solve a certain class of linear systems by using only matrix multiplication. For any initial guess, the iteration converges to

In a first course in numerical analysis, students often encounter a simple iterative method for solving a linear system of equations, known as Jacobi's method (or Jacobi's iterative method). Although Jacobi's method is not used much in practice, it is introduced because it is easy to explain, easy to implement,