# The DO Loop

Statistical programming in SAS with an emphasis on SAS/IML programsThere are two popular ways to express the steepness of a line or ray. The most-often used mathematical definition is from high-school math where the slope is defined as "rise over run." A second way is to report the angle of inclination to the horizontal, as introduced in basic trigonometry.

Statistical software provides methods to simulate independent random variates from continuous and discrete distributions. For example, in the SAS DATA step, you can use the RAND function to simulate variates from continuous distributions (such as the normal or lognormal distributions) or from discrete distributions (such as the Bernoulli or Poisson).

In a previous article, I presented some of the most popular blog posts from 2023. The popular articles tend to discuss elementary topics that have broad appeal. However, I also wrote many technical articles about advanced topics. The following articles didn't make the Top 10 list, but they deserve a

An unobserved category is one that does not appear in a sample of data. For example, in a small sample of US voters, you are likely to observe members of the major political parties, but less likely to observe members of minor or fringe parties. This can cause a headache

*The DO Loop*in 2023

In 2023, I wrote 90 articles for The DO Loop blog. My most popular articles were about SAS programming, data visualization, and statistics. In addition, several "general interest" articles were popular, including my article for Pi Day and an article about AI chatbots. If you missed any of these articles,

Statistical software often includes supports for a weight variable. Many SAS procedures make a distinction between integer frequencies and more general "importance weights." Frequencies are supported by using the FREQ statement in SAS procedures; general weights are supported by using the WEIGHT statement. An exception is PROC FREQ, which contains