# The DO Loop

Statistical programming in SAS with an emphasis on SAS/IML programsIn SAS, the INPUT and PUT functions are powerful functions that enable you to convert data from character type to numeric type and vice versa. They work by applying SAS formats or informats to data. You cannot fully understand the INPUT and PUT functions without understanding formats and informats in

SAS software supports two kinds of procedures: interactive and non-interactive. Most SAS procedures are non-interactive. They begin with a PROC statement, include one or more additional statements, and end with a RUN statement. When SAS encounters the RUN statement, the procedure executes all statements, then exits. On the other hand,

A remarkable result in probability theory is the "three-sigma rule," which is a generic name for theorems that bound the probability that a univariate random variable will appear near the center of its distribution. This article discusses the familiar three-sigma rule for the normal distribution, a less-familiar rule for unimodal

In practice, there is no need to remember textbook formulas for the ANOVA test because all modern statistical software will perform the test for you. In SAS, the ANOVA procedure is designed to handle balanced designs (the same number of observations in each group) whereas the GLM procedure can handle

A previous article about how to display missing values in SAS prompted a comment about special missing values in ODS tables in SAS. Did you know that statistical tables in SAS include special missing values to represent certain situations in statistical analyses? This article explains how to interpret four special

In statistical tables in SAS, a dot (.) represents a numerical missing value. Although a dot is the default symbol in SAS, other languages use other symbols. The R language prints the symbol NA, which stands for "not available." The MATLAB language uses NaN ("Not a Number"). In Python, many