SAS® Macro Language immensely empowers SAS programmers with versatility and efficiency of their code development. It allows SAS users to modularize programming code with “once written – many times used” components, and in many cases automatically generate data-driven SAS code.
Macro language and macro processor
Generally, SAS software processes your SAS program step by step, first scanning it for macro language objects - macro variables referenced as &somename, and macros referenced as %somename. If found, SAS software activates macro processor which resolves and substitutes those macro references according to the macro language syntax before SAS compiles and executes your programming steps.
SAS macro language vs. SAS programming language
A SAS program usually consists of two, often interwoven layers – macro layer and non-macro layer, each with its own syntax and its own timing of compilation and execution. In other words, SAS code is a combination of two distinct languages:
- SAS programming language (comprised of DATA steps, PROC steps and global statements such as LIBNAME, OPTIONS, TITLE etc.)
- SAS macro language (comprised of %LET, %IF, %DO, macro functions etc.) which is processed separately from and before SAS compiler executes SAS programming language code.
The difference between them is like a difference between cooking a meal and eating the meal. In this analogy meal=code, cooking=SAS macro language, eating=SAS programming language. Clear understanding of this difference is the key to becoming a successful SAS programmer.
Two types of SAS macros
There are two distinct types of SAS macros:
- Macros that generate some SAS programming language code which can span across SAS statements or steps;
- Macros that generate some string values which can be used as part of SAS programming language code or data values, but they are not complete SAS statements or steps. This type does not generate any SAS executable code, just a value.
What is a SAS macro function?
SAS macro function is a SAS macro that generates a value. In other words, it is the type 2 macro described above. As any SAS macros, SAS macro functions can have any number (zero or more) of positional or/and named parameters (arguments). SAS users may define their own macro functions, but in doing so you may not utilize any SAS language syntax; only SAS macro language syntax is allowed. You can use existing macro functions in your own macro function definition. Among others, one of the most powerful is %SYSFUNC macro function which brings a wealth of SAS language functions into SAS macro language.
Sources of SAS macro functions
SAS macro functions may come from the following three sources.
1. Pre-built macro functions
Pre-built macro functions that are part of the macro processor. These are such macro functions as %eval, %length, %quote, %scan, %str, %sysfunc, %upcase, etc. Here is a complete list of the pre-built SAS macro functions.
2. Auto-call macro functions
Auto-call macros, some of them are type 1 (macros), and some – type 2 (macro functions) such as %cmpres, %left, %lowcase, %trim, %verify, etc. These macro functions supplement the pre-built macro functions. The main difference from the pre-built macro functions is that the auto-call macro functions are program samples of the user-defined macro functions that are written in SAS macro language and made available to you without having to define or include them in your programs. The auto-call macro functions come with your SAS software installation and usually pre-configured for you by setting MAUTOSOURCE and SASAUTOS= macro system options. They may include several macro libraries depending on the SAS products licensed at your site. For example, for my SAS BASE installation the auto-call macro library is in the following folder:
Here is a selected list of auto-call macros provided with SAS software.
From the usage standpoint, you will not notice any difference between the pre-built and the auto-call macro functions. For example, macro function %upcase() is pre-built, while macro function %lowcase() is auto-call macro function. They belong to entirely different families, but we use them as if they are complementary siblings.
3. User-defined macro functions
Finally, there are user-defined macro functions that do not come with SAS installation. These are the macro functions that you define on your own. Usually, they are kept separately from the auto-call macros mainly in order to distinguish them from SAS-supplied ones.
To enable access to your own SAS macro library in addition to the auto-call macro library (or libraries), you can use the INSERT= system option:
Instead of replacing the SASAUTOS value, this option inserts an additional value into the existing SASAUTOS option as the first value, thus allowing you to tap into your own macro library first, and then also into pre-set SAS auto-call libraries.
Creating user-defined macro function
Let’s consider the following example. Suppose, we want to create a macro function that takes a data set name as an argument and returns a value equal to the number of observations in that data set.
We know that the following code calculates the number of observations in a data set:
data _null_; call symputx('NOBS',n); stop; set SASHELP.CARS nobs=n; run; %put &=NOBS; NOBS=428
Can we create a SAS macro function by enclosing this code into macro? Something like this:
%macro nobs(dset=,result=); %global &result; data _null_; call symputx("&result",n); stop; set &dset nobs=n; run; %mend nobs;
The answer is “No”. Yes, we created a valid macro; we can invoke this macro to produce the result:
%nobs(dset=SASHELP.CARS, result=NOBS); %put &=NOBS; NOBS=428
But this is not a macro function. Remember type 2 macro that does not generate any SAS programming language code, just a value? But this macro does generate SAS code which assigns a value to the macro variable specified as the second argument (result=NOBS).
In order to create a valid macro function, our macro should not have any SAS language code in it – neither a DATA step, nor a PROC step. It may only be comprised of the SAS macro language code. Here it is:
%macro nobs(dset); %local dsid n; %let dsid = %sysfunc(open(&dset)); %if &dsid %then %do; %let n = %sysfunc(attrn(&dsid,nlobs)); %let dsid = %sysfunc(close(&dsid)); %end; %else %put %sysfunc(sysmsg()); &n %mend nobs;
When macro processor executes this macro, the only object that gets passed to the SAS language compiler is the value shown in the line right before the %mend. This is the calculated value of the number of observations (denoted by &n ). This is the only thing that is visible by the SAS language compiler, the rest is the macro language code visible and being handled by SAS macro processor.
IMPORTANT: When defining SAS macro function always use %local statement to list ALL macro variables that are created in your macro to ensure they will not accidentally overwrite same-named macro variables in the calling environment. You don’t need to declare %local for macro parameters as they are always local automatically.
SAS macro functions usage examples
When a macro function is defined this way, wherever you place its invocation %nobs(SASHELP.CARS) in your SAS code it will be evaluated and replaced with the corresponding value (in this case it is number 428) by the SAS macro processor. That way you can avoid substandard hard-coding and make your SAS code dynamic and powerful. You can use macro functions in many SAS coding contexts. For example:
- Assignment statements for macro variable: %let NOBS=%nobs(SASHELP.CARS);
- Assignment statement in a DATA step: x = %nobs(SASHELP.CARS);
- As part of an expression in a DATA step: x = %nobs(SASHELP.CARS)/2 + 3;
- As a value of a DATA step do loop: do i=1 to %nobs(SASHELP.CARS);
- As a value of a macro do loop: %do i=1 %to %nobs(SASHELP.CARS);
- As part of condition in IF statement: if %nobs(SASHELP.CARS) > 500 then do;
And so on. It's important to note that arguments (parameters) to macro functions must be either SAS constants or macro expressions resolving to SAS constants. Since macro functions get resolved by the macro processor before SAS program execution, the arguments cannot be variable names. This is the key difference between macro functions and SAS functions.
Do you find this post useful? Do you use SAS macro functions? Can you suggest other usage examples? Please share with us in the Comments below.
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