The HighLow plot often enables you to create many custom plots without resorting to annotation. Although it is designed to create a candlestick chart for stocks, it is incredibly versatile. Recently, a SAS programmer wanted to create a patient-profile graph that looked like a stacked bar chart but had repeated

## Tag: **Statistical Graphics**

Sometimes in matrix computations, it is important to display the nonzero elements of a matrix. This can be useful for visualizing the structure of a sparse matrix (one that has many zeros) and it is also useful when describing a matrix algorithm (such as Gaussian elimination) that introduces zeros at

This article shows how to perform two-dimensional bilinear interpolation in SAS by using a SAS/IML function. It is assumed that you have observed the values of a response variable on a regular grid of locations. A previous article showed how to interpolate inside one rectangular cell. When you have a

I've previously written about linear interpolation in one dimension. Bilinear interpolation is a method for two-dimensional interpolation on a rectangle. If the value of a function is known at the four corners of a rectangle, an interpolation scheme gives you a way to estimate the function at any point in

A previous article describes the funnel plot (Spiegelhalter, 2005), which can identify samples that have rates or proportions that are much different than expected. The funnel plot is a scatter plot that plots the sample proportion of some quantity against the size of the sample. The variance of the sample

Death is always a difficult topic to discuss, and death has been in the news a lot during this tragic coronavirus pandemic. Many news stories focus on states, counties, or cities that have the most cases or the most deaths. A related statistic is the case fatality rate, which is

I previously wrote about the advantages of adding horizontal and vertical reference lines to a graph. You can also add a diagonal reference line to a graph. The SGPLOT procedure in SAS supports two primary ways to add a diagonal reference line: The LINEPARM statement enables you to specify a

Data tell a story. A purpose of data visualization is to convey that story to the reader in a clear and impactful way. Sometimes you can let the data "speak for themselves" in an unadorned graphic, but sometimes it is helpful to add reference lines to a graph to emphasize

I have written several articles about how to work with continuous probability distributions in SAS. I always emphasize that it is important to be able to compute the four essential functions for working with a statistical distribution. Namely, you need to know how to generate random values, how to compute

During an epidemic, such as the coronavirus pandemic of 2020, the media often shows graphs of the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases for different countries. Often these graphs use a logarithmic scale for the vertical axis. In these graphs, a straight line indicates that new cases are increasing at an