During an epidemic, such as the coronavirus pandemic of 2020, the media often shows graphs of the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases for different countries. Often these graphs use a logarithmic scale for the vertical axis. In these graphs, a straight line indicates that new cases are increasing at an

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A cumulative curve shows the total amount of some quantity at multiple points in time. Examples include: Total sales of songs, movies, or books, beginning when the item is released. Total views of blog posts, beginning when the post is published. Total cases of a disease for different countries, beginning

During an outbreak of a disease, such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the media shows daily graphs that convey the spread of the disease. The following two graphs appear frequently: New cases for each day (or week). This information is usually shown as a histogram or needle plot. The graph

When you create a graph by using the SGPLOT procedure in SAS, usually the default tick locations are acceptable. Sometimes, however, you might want to specify a set of custom tick values for one or both axes. This article shows three examples: Specify evenly spaced values. Specify tick values that

A SAS/IML programmer asked about the best way to print multiple SAS/IML variables when each variable needs a different format. He wanted the output to resemble the "Parameter Estimates" table that is produced by PROC REG and other SAS/STAT procedures. This article shows four ways to print SAS/IML vectors in

Books about statistics and machine learning often discuss the tradeoff between bias and variance for an estimator. These discussions are often motivated by a sophisticated predictive model such as a regression or a decision tree. But the basic idea can be seen in much simpler situations. This article presents a

Recently, I saw a graphic on Twitter by @neilrkaye that showed the rapid convergence of a regular polygon to a circle as you increase the number of sides for the polygon. The author remarked that polygons that have 40 or more sides "all look like circles to me." That is,

In a previous article, I discussed the binormal model for a binary classification problem. This model assumes a set of scores that are normally distributed for each population, and the mean of the scores for the Negative population is less than the mean of scores for the Positive population. I

Suppose that a data set contains a set of parameter values. For each row of parameters, you need to perform some computation. A recent discussion on the SAS Support Communities mentions an important point: if there are duplicate rows in the data, a program might repeat the same computation several

A colleague recently posted an article about how to use SAS Visual Analytics to create a circular graph that displays a year's worth of temperature data. Specifically, the graph shows the air temperature for each day in a year relative to some baseline temperature, such as 65F (18C). Days warmer