Absorbing Markov chains in SAS

Last week I showed how to represent a Markov transition matrix in the SAS/IML matrix language. I also showed how to use matrix multiplication to iterate a state vector, thereby producing a discrete-time forecast of the state of the Markov chain system. This article shows that the expected behavior of […]
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Markov transition matrices in SAS/IML

Many computations in elementary probability assume that the probability of an event is independent of previous trials. For example, if you toss a coin twice, the probability of observing "heads" on the second toss does not depend on the result of the first toss. However, there are situations in which […]
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Grids and linear subspaces

A grid is a set of evenly spaced points. You can use SAS to create a grid of points on an interval, in a rectangular region in the plane, or even in higher-dimensional regions like the parallelepiped shown at the left, which is generated by three vectors. You can use […]
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Compute the square root matrix

Children in primary school learn that every positive number has a real square root. The number x is a square root of s, if x2 = s. Did you know that matrices can also have square roots? For certain matrices S, you can find another matrix X such that X*X […]
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Matrix computations at SAS Global Forum 2016

Last week I attended SAS Global Forum 2016 in Las Vegas. I and more than 5,000 other attendees discussed and shared tips about data analysis and statistics. Naturally, I attended many presentations that featured using SAS/IML software to implement advanced analytical algorithms. Several speakers showed impressive mastery of SAS/IML programming […]
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Dummy variables in SAS/IML

Last week I showed how to create dummy variables in SAS by using the GLMMOD procedure. The procedure enables you to create design matrices that encode continuous variables, categorical variables, and their interactions. You can use dummy variables to replace categorical variables in procedures that do not support a CLASS […]
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Twelve posts from 2015 that deserve a second look

I began 2016 by compiling a list of popular articles from my blog in 2015. This "People's Choice" list contains many interesting articles, but some of my personal favorites did not make the list. Today I present the "Editor's Choice" list of articles that deserve a second look. I've grouped […]
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Create a correlation matrix from the upper triangular elements

A recent question posted on a discussion forum discussed storing the strictly upper-triangular portion of a correlation matrix. Suppose that you have a correlation matrix like the following: proc iml; corr = {1.0 0.6 0.5 0.4, 0.6 1.0 0.3 0.2, 0.5 0.3 1.0 0.1, 0.4 0.2 0.1 1.0}; Every correlation […]
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Ten "one-liners" that create test matrices for statistical programmers

You've had a long day. You've implemented a custom algorithm in the SAS/IML language. But before you go home, you want to generate some matrices and test your program. If you are like me, you prefer a short statement—one line would be best. However, you also want the flexibility to […]
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A simple way to construct a large correlation matrix

Occasionally a SAS statistical programmer will ask me, "How can I construct a large correlation matrix?" Often they are simulating data with SAS or developing a matrix algorithm that involves a correlation matrix. Typically they want a correlation matrix that is too large to input by hand, such as a […]
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