Sample without replacement in SAS

Last week I showed three ways to sample with replacement in SAS. You can use the SAMPLE function in SAS/IML 12.1 to sample from a finite set or you can use the DATA step or PROC SURVEYSELECT to extract a random sample from a SAS data set. Sampling without replacement […]
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Sample with replacement in SAS

Randomly choosing a subset of elements is a fundamental operation in statistics and probability. Simple random sampling with replacement is used in bootstrap methods (where the technique is called resampling), permutation tests and simulation. Last week I showed how to use the SAMPLE function in SAS/IML software to sample with […]
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Sampling with replacement: Now easier than ever in the SAS/IML language

With each release of SAS/IML software, the language provides simple ways to carry out tasks that previously required more effort. In 2010 I blogged about a SAS/IML module that appeared in my book Statistical Programming with SAS/IML Software, which was written by using the SAS/IML 9.2. The blog post showed […]
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Output percentiles of multiple variables in a tabular format

A challenge for statistical programmers is getting data into the right form for analysis. For graphing or analyzing data, sometimes the "wide format" (each subject is represented by one row and many variables) is required, but other times the "long format" (observations for each subject span multiple rows) is more […]
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How to compute p-values for a bootstrap distribution

I was recently asked the following question: I am using bootstrap simulations to compute critical values for a statistical test. Suppose I have test statistic for which I want a p-value. How do I compute this? The answer to this question doesn't require knowing anything about bootstrap methods. An equivalent […]
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Ranking with confidence: Part 2

In a previous post, I described how to compute means and standard errors for data that I want to rank. The example data (which are available for download) are mean daily delays for 20 US airlines in 2007. The previous post carried out steps 1 and 2 of the method […]
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Ranking with confidence: Part 1

I recently posted an article about representing uncertainty in rankings on the blog of the ASA Section for Statistical Programmers and Analysts (SSPA). The posting discusses the importance of including confidence intervals or other indicators of uncertainty when you display rankings. Today's article complements the SSPA post by showing how […]
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Resampling and simulating my grocery bills

In a previous post, I used statistical data analysis to estimate the probability that my grocery bill is a whole-dollar amount such as $86.00 or $103.00. I used three weeks' grocery receipts to show that the last two digits of prices on items that I buy are not uniformly distributed. […]
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Scrambling (and unscrambling) words

My previous post on creating a random permutation started me thinking about word games. My wife loves to solve the daily Jumble® puzzle that runs in our local paper. The puzzle displays a string of letters like MLYBOS, and you attempt to unscramble the letters to make an ordinary word. […]
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