When you implement a statistical algorithm in a vector-matrix language such as SAS/IML, R, or MATLAB, you should measure the performance of your implementation, which means that you should time how long a program takes to analyze data of varying sizes and characteristics. There are some general tips that can

## Tag: **Efficiency**

As my colleague Margaret Crevar recently wrote, it is useful to know how long SAS programs take to run. Margaret and others have written about how to use the SAS FULLSTIMER option to monitor the performance of the SAS system. In fact, SAS distributes a macro that enables you to

Imagine that you have one million rows of numerical data and you want to determine if a particular "target" value occurs. How might you find where the value occurs? For univariate data, this is an easy problem. In the SAS DATA step you can use a WHERE clause or a

Evaluating a cumulative distribution function (CDF) can be an expensive operation. Each time you evaluate the CDF for a continuous probability distribution, the software has to perform a numerical integration. (Recall that the CDF at a point x is the integral under the probability density function (PDF) where x is

Friends have to look out for each other. Sometimes this can be slightly embarrassing. At lunch you might need to tell a friend that he has some tomato sauce on his chin. Or that she has a little spinach stuck between her teeth. Or you might need to tell your

A common task in SAS/IML programming is finding elements of a SAS/IML matrix that satisfy a logical expression. For example, you might need to know which matrix elements are missing, are negative, or are divisible by 2. In the DATA step, you can use the WHERE clause to subset data.

A SAS customer showed me a SAS/IML program that he had obtained from a book. The program was taking a long time to run on his data, which was somewhat large. He was wondering if I could identify any inefficiencies in the program. The first thing I did was to

My last blog post showed how to simulate data for a logistic regression model with two continuous variables. To keep the discussion simple, I simulated a single sample with N observations. However, to obtain the sampling distribution of statistics, you need to generate many samples from the same logistic model.

In my book Simulating Data with SAS, I show how to use the SAS DATA step to simulate data from a logistic regression model. Recently there have been discussions on the SAS/IML Support Community about simulating logistic data by using the SAS/IML language. This article describes how to efficiently simulate

In a previous post, I stated that you should avoid matrix multiplication that involves a huge diagonal matrix because that operation can be carried out more efficiently. Here's another tip that sometimes improves the efficiency of matrix multiplication: use parentheses to prevent the creation of large matrices. Matrix multiplication is