### About this blog

Rick Wicklin, PhD, is a distinguished researcher in computational statistics at SAS and is a principal developer of PROC IML and SAS/IML Studio. This blog focuses on statistical programming. It discusses statistical and computational algorithms, statistical graphics, simulation, efficiency, and data analysis. Rick is author of the books

*Statistical Programming with SAS/IML Software*and*Simulating Data with SAS*.

Follow @RickWicklin on Twitter.

**Do you have a SAS programming question?**Assistance is available! Ask SAS/IML questions at the SAS/IML Support Community. For other SAS issues, visit the SAS Support Communities.### Tags

9.3 9.4 9.22 12.1 12.3 13.1 13.2 14.1 Bootstrap and Resampling Ciphers Conferences Data Analysis Efficiency File Exchange Getting Started GTL Heat maps History IMLPlus Just for Fun Math Matrix Computations Missing Data Numerical Analysis Optimization Packages pi day R Reading and Writing Data SAS/IML Studio SAS Global Forum SAS Programming Simulation Statistical Graphics Statistical Programming Statistical Thinking Strings Tips and Techniques vectorization Video### Archives

### Subscribe to this blog

## Ten tips before you run an optimization

Optimization is a primary tool of computational statistics. SAS/IML software provides a suite of nonlinear optimizers that makes it easy to find an optimum for a user-defined objective function. You can perform unconstrained optimization, or define linear or nonlinear constraints for constrained optimization. Over the years I have seen many […]

Post a Comment ## Four ways to create a design matrix in SAS

SAS programmers sometimes ask, "How do I create a design matrix in SAS?" A design matrix is a numerical matrix that represents the explanatory variables in regression models. In simple models, the design matrix contains one column for each continuous variable and multiple columns (called dummy variables) for each classification […]

Post a Comment ## A simple trick to include (and order!) all categories in SGPLOT legends

Last week Sanjay Matange wrote about a new SAS 9.4m3 option that enables you to show all categories in a graph legend, even when the data do not contain all the categories. Sanjay's example was a chart that showed medical conditions classified according to the scale "Mild," "Moderate," and "Severe." […]

Post a Comment ## Compute a moving average in SAS

A common question on SAS discussion forums is how to compute a moving average in SAS. This article shows how to use PROC EXPAND and contains links to articles that use the DATA step or macros to compute moving averages in SAS. In a previous post, I explained how to […]

Post a Comment ## Arrange matrices and graphs in a gridded layout

Last week my colleague Chris Hemedinger published a blog post that described how to use the ODS LAYOUT GRIDDED statement to arrange tables and graphs in a panel. The statement was introduced in SAS 9.4m1 (December 2013). Gridded layout is supported for HTML, POWERPOINT, and the PRINTER family of destinations […]

Post a Comment ## Trap and cap: Avoid division-by-zero and domain errors when evaluating functions

Statistical programmers often need to evaluate complicated expressions that contain square roots, logarithms, and other functions whose domain is restricted. Similarly, you might need to evaluate a rational expression in which the denominator of the expression can be zero. In these cases, it is important to avoid evaluating a function […]

Post a Comment ## The CUSUM-LAG trick in SAS/IML

Every year near Halloween I write a trick-and-treat article in which I demonstrate a simple programming trick that is a real treat to use. This year's trick features two of my favorite functions, the CUSUM function and the LAG function. By using these function, you can compute the rows of […]

Post a Comment ## Generate evenly spaced points in an interval

I've previously written about how to generate a sequence of evenly spaced points in an interval. Evenly spaced data is useful for scoring a regression model on an interval. In the previous articles the endpoints of the interval were hard-coded. However, it is common to want to evaluate a function […]

Post a Comment ## Find the ODS table names produced by any SAS procedure

Statistical programmers often have to use the results from one SAS procedure as the input to another SAS procedure. Because ODS enables you to you to create a SAS data set from any ODS table or graph, it is easy to obtain a data set that contains the value of […]

Post a Comment ## Compute the number of digits in an integer

The title of this blog post might seem strange, but I occasionally need to compute the number of digits in a number, usually because I am trying to stuff an integer value into a string. Each time, I have to derive the formula from scratch, so I am writing this […]

Post a Comment