Pairwise comparisons of a data vector

A SAS customer showed me a SAS/IML program that he had obtained from a book. The program was taking a long time to run on his data, which was somewhat large. He was wondering if I could identify any inefficiencies in the program. The first thing I did was to […]
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Simulate many samples from a logistic regression model

My last blog post showed how to simulate data for a logistic regression model with two continuous variables. To keep the discussion simple, I simulated a single sample with N observations. However, to obtain the sampling distribution of statistics, you need to generate many samples from the same logistic model. […]
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Simulating data for a logistic regression model

In my book Simulating Data with SAS, I show how to use the SAS DATA step to simulate data from a logistic regression model. Recently there have been discussions on the SAS/IML Support Community about simulating logistic data by using the SAS/IML language. This article describes how to efficiently simulate […]
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Using associativity can lead to big performance improvements in matrix multiplication

In a previous post, I stated that you should avoid matrix multiplication that involves a huge diagonal matrix because that operation can be carried out more efficiently. Here's another tip that sometimes improves the efficiency of matrix multiplication: use parentheses to prevent the creation of large matrices. Matrix multiplication is […]
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Never multiply with a large diagonal matrix

I love working with SAS Technical Support because I get to see real problems that SAS customers face as they use SAS/IML software. The other day I advised a customer how to improve the efficiency of a computation that involved multiplying large matrices. In this article I describe an important […]
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Assign the diagonal elements of a matrix

SAS/IML programmers know that the VECDIAG matrix can be used to extract the diagonal elements of a matrix. For example, the following statements extract the diagonal of a 3 x 3 matrix: proc iml; m = {1 2 3, 4 5 6, 7 8 9}; v = vecdiag(m); /* v = {1,5,9} […]
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Count the number of unique rows in a matrix

How do you count the number of unique rows in a matrix? The simplest algorithm is to sort the data and then iterate down the rows, comparing each row with the previous row. However, this algorithm has two shortcomings: it physically sorts the data (which means that the original locations […]
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Using simulation to estimate the power of a statistical test

The power of a statistical test measures the test's ability to detect a specific alternate hypothesis. For example, educational researchers might want to compare the mean scores of boys and girls on a standardized test. They plan to use the well-known two-sample t test. The null hypothesis is that the […]
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How to vectorize computations in a matrix language

Last week someone posted an interesting question to the SAS/IML Support Community. The problem involved four nested DO loops and took hours to run. By transforming several nested DO loops into an equivalent matrix operation, I was able to reduce the run time to about one second. The process of […]
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Oh, those pesky temporary variables!

The SAS/IML language secretly creates temporary variables. Most of the time programmers aren't even aware that the language does this. However, there is one situation where if you don't think carefully about temporary variables, your program will silently produce an error. And as every programmer knows, silent wrong numbers are […]
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