My daughter's math lessons this year have included the concept of negative numbers (that is, numbers that are less than zero, not numbers that have a bad attitude). She has used number lines such as this one to help her while she completes her homework:

Notice that in this number line, there is no -0. But there is a -0 in SAS (and in many other programming languages). It's a bit elusive, but still easier to find than a Higgs boson particle.

Here is one way to tease it out:

```data neg0; a= 1 * 0; /* this is 0 */ b= -1 * 0; /* is it 0? */ put a= b=; run;```

The default formatted output hides the negative nature of the "nothing" we put in the variable b.

```a=0 b=0
```

But by applying a hexadecimal format, we can take a closer look at the variable's raw value:

```data neg0; a= 1 * 0; b= -1 * 0; put "a=0x" a:hex16." b=0x" b:hex16.; run;```

Now look at the result:

```a=0x0000000000000000  b=0x8000000000000000
```

You can see that there is just one bit of difference (literally!) between the two numbers. But would you ever notice this? Certainly not if you perform an equality test:

```data work.neg0; a= 1 * 0; b= -1 * 0; put "Is 0x" a:hex16. "equal to 0x" b:hex16. "?"; if (a eq b) then put "EQUAL!"; else put "NOT EQUAL!"; run;```

This program yields a deceiving result:

```Is 0x0000000000000000 equal to 0x8000000000000000 ?
EQUAL!
```

So what's happening? Is SAS broken? Or is there a hole ripped in the fabric of reality?

No, it's okay! This is all part of the IEEE 754 standard for floating point arithmetic. From the Wikipedia entry for "Signed zero":

The IEEE 754 standard for floating point arithmetic (presently used by most computers and programming languages that support floating point numbers) requires both +0 and −0.

In all but a few special cases, -0 behaves just like 0. Whew! That's a relief.

(Are you interested in learning more about "nothing"? I highly recommend the book Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea by Charles Seife.)

Tags
Share

Senior Manager, SAS Online Communities

+Chris Hemedinger is the manager of SAS Online Communities. He's also co-author of the popular SAS for Dummies book, author of Custom Tasks for SAS Enterprise Guide using Microsoft .NET, and a frequent participant on the SAS Enterprise Guide discussion forum.

1. Chris Hemedinger on

You can make this play up in other languages as well, but you might need a different approach. Here is a C# version that performs the trick with the Ceiling function:

``` static void Main(string[] args)
{
double a = Math.Ceiling(-0.1);
double b = 1 * 0;
double c = -1 * 0;
Console.WriteLine("a = Math.Ceiling(-0.1), a=" + a.ToString());

byte[] bytes;
bytes = BitConverter.GetBytes(a);
Console.WriteLine("Bytes of a:");
Console.WriteLine(BitConverter.ToString(bytes));

Console.WriteLine("b = 1 * 0, b=" + b.ToString());
bytes = BitConverter.GetBytes(b);
Console.WriteLine("Bytes of b:");
Console.WriteLine(BitConverter.ToString(bytes));

Console.WriteLine("c = -1 * 0, c=" + c.ToString());
bytes = BitConverter.GetBytes(c);
Console.WriteLine("Bytes of c:");
Console.WriteLine(BitConverter.ToString(bytes));
}
```

Output:

```a = Math.Ceiling(-0.1), a=0
Bytes of a:
00-00-00-00-00-00-00-80
b = 1 * 0, b=0
Bytes of b:
00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00
c = -1 * 0, c=0
Bytes of c:
00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00
```
2. Oh my goodness, Chris! "numbers less than zero, not numbers that have a bad attitude"? Groan!!

However, congratulations on the rest of the post. That's a piece of computing I've never seen before!

Amazing the funny little corners that this business has.

Tom

• Chris Hemedinger on

Thanks Tom! I'm thinking that this expression could catch on in Ottawa to describe the weather.

"Oh sure, the meteorologist says we'll have a high of zero today, but with the wind chill, it feels like negative zero."

3. Pingback: Numerical precision in SAS

4. This post was really helped us to solve an initially baffling problem.We use a macro to calculate a check sum on the *contents* of SAS datasets in order to be able to identify the datasets when we transfer them via SAS V5 transport format. The transport file is sent along with the check sum and the recipient extracts the dataset, re-calculates the check sum and compares to the original. We were getting differences where there should have been none. It turned out that the difference were negative zeros which were converted to positive when creating the SAS V5 transport file because this uses an IBM standard for numbers.